Doubts continue on claim to have solved P vs NP mathematical question

first_img This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Citation: Doubts continue on claim to have solved P vs NP mathematical question (2010, August 17) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2010-08-p-np-mathematical.html One of the most complex mathematical problems in the world is proving either that P ≠ NP or P=NP, a riddle that was first formulated in 1971 by mathematicians Leonid Levin and Stephen Cook. The question was one of seven millennium problems set by the Clay Mathematical Institute (CMI) in Cambridge, Massachusetts as being among the most difficult to solve. P vs. NP — The most notorious problem in theoretical computer science remains open More information: www.hpl.hp.com/personal/Vinay_ … r/Papers/pnp12pt.pdfcenter_img Explore further Vinay Deolalikar, a computer scientist from Hewlett-Packard’s research arm based in Palo Alto, California, claims to have solved the problem and stands to win $1 million if his proof is accepted.P refers to problems with solutions that are easy to find, in other words P is a class of problems for which an answer can be found in polynomial time. NP refers to problems with solutions that are almost impossible to find, but easy to verify, or in other words a class of problems for which an answer can be verified in polynomial time. The Clay Mathematical Institute offers the following problem to illustrate NP: you have a list of 400 university students to be accommodated but there is only room in the dormitory for 100 students. The Dean has provided a list of pairs of incompatible students who cannot be on the final list. This is an NP-problem because it is extremely difficult to go through all possible combinations to come up with a list, but very easy to verify once a list is obtained. According to CMI the number of possible combinations is greater than the number of atoms in the universe.If P ≠ NP some complex problems, such as the one above, could never be solved efficiently and there are serious limits on what computers will be able to accomplish in the future, whereas if P = NP every such problem would have a polynomial time solution. Mr Deolalikar writes that this would have profound implications for applications such as cryptography and on the question of whether or not human creativity could be automated.Among those skeptical of Deolalikar’s claim is Scott Aaronson, assistant professor of electrical engineering and computer science at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), who said on his blog that he will personally add $200,000 to the prize, even though he can ill afford it, and he has not read Deolalikar’s entire paper. He said if the proof was correct it would change his life so dramatically that “having to pay $200,000 will be the least of it.” He later also gave his reasons for being so confident in MIT’s technology review.Another skeptic is Professor Richard Lipton at Georgia Tech College of Computing, who has been working on the P vs NP problem for three decades.Deolalikar’s paper is available online, and is being peer-reviewed by computer scientists. To be considered for the million dollar prize the paper must be published in an approved mathematics publication and must also retain general acceptance by mathematicians two years after the proof is published. © 2010 PhysOrg.comlast_img read more

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Eurocopter demonstrates new emergency backup electric motor for helicopters

first_img This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Citation: Eurocopter demonstrates new emergency backup electric motor for helicopters (2011, October 14) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2011-10-eurocopter-emergency-backup-electric-motor.html © 2011 PhysOrg.com Explore further Eurocopter X3: The world’s fastest copter (PhysOrg.com) — Normally, when a helicopter loses power in flight due to engine failure, the pilot reverts to using a technique called autorotation to avoid crashing. What happens is the rotors keep spinning automatically due to the air rushing past as the aircraft descends, which prevents the aircraft from picking up speed as it descends, eventually leading to a reasonably safe landing. The problem though, is that controlling such a descent is quite difficult due to the lack of power adjustments to the angle of the rotors, which can lead to pitching. In a sense it’s much like the difference between regular and power brakes. The pilot is forced to rely on a lot of muscle power. To make things easier for pilots, and thus safer for all concerned, Eurocopter, the biggest maker of helicopters in the world, has come up with a way to allow a pilot to more easily maintain control of the rotors while descending and landing using an electric motor add-on. Traditionally, the most difficult parts of using the autorotation technique, is the beginning of the event and the landing. The beginning is difficult because more often than not the helicopter is leaning towards its destination to head forward in that direction, thus the aircraft needs to be leveled off. Landing is always the most difficult part of flying a helicopter because of the many tiny adjustments that need to be made just as the aircraft touches the ground; doing so with no engine power is far more complicated due to the inability to alter the speed of descent and the difficulty in changing the rotor angle. Plus, the pilot only gets one shot.To help in both cases, the engineers at Eurocopter have developed an electric motor and battery system that can be used in the event of engine failure. It appears that the backup motor doesn’t actually make the rotors go around, but instead allows the pilot to effortlessly adjust the rotor angle, which allows for much easier stabilization both during the initial switchover and during landing.In the demonstration, a AS350 helicopter outfitted with the new motor was able to land very nearly as easily as it would have using its normal gas engine.Eurocopter is a global company with main offices in France, Germany and Spain. It makes both commercial and military helicopters. As part of its announcement, the company said it plans to implement the new technology in all of its aircraft and will continue to look into using what it’s learned with the electric motor to help in the development of true hybrid helicopter technology to help cut fuel consumption.last_img read more

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Increased deaths from lung disease tied to more fires in Southeast Asia

first_img © 2012 Phys.org Journal information: Nature Climate Change (Phys.org) — Sometimes in science, it’s a matter of thinking about things in new ways. That’s what a team of US and British researchers have found after studying the numbers of fires that are set intentionally in Southeast Asia to clear forests during El Niño events as compared to so-called normal years, and the incidence of lung disease leading to deaths in the region. After studying a decade’s worth of satellite images, the team, as they describe in their paper published in Nature Climate Change, found what appears to be a correlation between El Niño events and increased deaths due to the pollutants in smoke from fires. Explore further This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. In the western world, people are used to associating an El Niño event with warmer waters in the Pacific Ocean, leading to altered weather patterns across North America. But the same events lead to cooler waters in the eastern Pacific, most specifically around Indonesia and Southeast Asia. That leads to less rainfall during the annual monsoon season, which allows for more burning of forests to produce more crop land. And burning more forests produces more smoke with the associated pollutants, which the team has found, might conceivably be adding up to 15,000 deaths per event.To find these correlations, the team studied satellite images taken during the decade 1997 to 2006 to discern how many fires were being set and how much pollution they were generating. They then plugged that information into chemistry models to see how much of which pollutants would be generated by such fires. Because a strong El Niño occurred in 1997, the team was able to follow the chain reaction of events. They found that shortly after the event began, the number of fires picked up and fine particulates in the atmosphere increased to over 300 times the amount the World Health Organization has established as a safe benchmark, for a period of 200 days. They found that levels of ozone were also elevated. They compared this with data from the opposite type of event, a La Niña that occurred in 2000, bringing more than normal rain to the area and a reduction in the number of fires. Particulates from the fires that year were 98% lower than in 1997.In studying the satellite images the team was also able to follow the track the pollutants took and found they were concentrated mostly around Indonesia and Malaysia. They then estimated the number of people that would die from the inhalation of the particulates based on the population of the area where the pollutants traveled and found they likely amount to between six and fourteen thousand deaths per event. Ozone from the fires likely add another two to six thousand deaths.The one upside to the study, the authors suggest is that because the fires are man-made, they could be stopped given the right set of circumstances.center_img More information: El Niño and health risks from landscape fire emissions in southeast Asia, Nature Climate Change (2012) doi:10.1038/nclimate1658AbstractEmissions from landscape fires affect both climate and air quality. Here, we combine satellite-derived fire estimates and atmospheric modelling to quantify health effects from fire emissions in southeast Asia from 1997 to 2006. This region has large interannual variability in fire activity owing to coupling between El Niño-induced droughts and anthropogenic land-use change. We show that during strong El Niño years, fires contribute up to 200 μg m−3 and 50 ppb in annual average fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ozone surface concentrations near fire sources, respectively. This corresponds to a fire contribution of 200 additional days per year that exceed the World Health Organization 50 μg m−3 24-hr PM2.5 interim target4 and an estimated 10,800 (6,800–14,300)-person (~ 2%) annual increase in regional adult cardiovascular mortality. Our results indicate that reducing regional deforestation and degradation fires would improve public health along with widely established benefits from reducing carbon emissions, preserving biodiversity and maintaining ecosystem services. Study area population and locations of fire activity. Image (c) Nature, doi:10.1038/nclimate1658 Ancient El Nino clue to future floods Citation: Increased deaths from lung disease tied to more fires in Southeast Asia during El Nino (2012, August 13) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2012-08-deaths-lung-disease-tied-southeast.htmllast_img read more

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Analysis of bones found in Romania offer evidence of human and Neanderthal

first_img(Phys.org)—DNA testing of a human mandible fossil found in Romania has revealed a genome with 4.8 to 11.3 percent Neanderthal DNA—its original owner died approximately 40,000 years ago, Palaeogenomicist Qiaomei Fu reported to audience members at a Biology of Genomes meeting in New York last week. She noted also that she and her research team found long Neanderthal sequences. The high percentage suggests, she added, that the human had a Neanderthal in its family tree going back just four to six generations. The finding by the team provides strong evidence that humans and Neanderthals continued breeding in Europe, long after their initial co-mingling in the Middle East (after humans began migrating out of Africa.) Last year, Fu and her team published a paper describing DNA analysis of a human bone fragment found in an unknown place in Siberia. Dated at 45,000 years old, the team found evidence of Neanderthal DNA, but more importantly, because it was remarkably well preserved, the relic served to strengthen a slower mutation rate than many in the field were embracing. In this new effort, Fu and her team also found that the jawbone (which still had some teeth in it) had visible Neanderthal traits, such as enlarged wisdom teeth. The jawbone was found in a cave accessible only by diving through a watery corridor back in 2002, and has been an object of study ever since. The high percentage of Neanderthal DNA is in sharp contrast to modern out-of-Africa humans, which typically have approximately one to four percent Neanderthal genes.This latest finding, along with the bone found in Siberia and others in Europe has eroded the belief that human interbreeding with Neanderthals occurred only in the Middle East. It now seems possible that humans and Neanderthals were living in the same geographic areas over the course of five thousand years, which would of course explain why their DNA appears in every person not directly descended from people in Africa, on the planet. What is still a mystery, though, is what happened to the Neanderthal? Why did they disappear even as humans continued on? Eerily, this new evidence suggests that the two were interbreeding very nearly right up to the time when the Neanderthals ceased to exist. Genetic testing shows Neanderthals less diverse than modern humans A Neanderthal skeleton, left, compared with a modern human skeleton. Credit: American Museum of Natural History © 2015 Phys.org Citation: Analysis of bones found in Romania offer evidence of human and Neanderthal interbreeding in Europe (2015, May 14) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2015-05-analysis-bones-romania-evidence-human.html More information: Fu, Q., An early modern human with a recent Neandertal ancestor, talk: meetings.cshl.edu/abstracts/ge … ome2015_absstat.html Explore further This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.last_img read more

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Maslows pyramid of needs

first_imgThen why do we still refer to Maslow’s pioneering hierarchy of needs, named for the late Brooklyn-born psychologist Abraham Maslow, as if it’s a given truth? The visual punch of that easy-to-remember pyramid, in fact, seems to have a lot to do with its longevity, but some scholars now say that Maslow probably didn’t even create it, and many feel it fails to capture the nuances of Maslow’s more complex theories. Let’s examine all the angles. Read the whole story: Quartz Maslow’s hierarchy of needs is probably the world’s most famous framework to explain human motivation. As a refresher: It would suggest that you were driven to open this newsletter by a “higher level” need to achieve and build esteem, in this case, by picking up a bit of knowledge. This indicates that, at the moment, your “lower level” needs for food and safety are sated, as are your desires for love and belonging, leaving you free to gaze higher, toward “self-actualization.” Since the 1950s, when Maslow’s hierarchy blew up, the framework has been associated with a rainbow-hued pyramid. Textbooks carried this graphic for years, and some still do, even though most researchers who tested Maslow’s theory have found it unscientific. Though recent evidence from a large study was mixed, most studies have found the needs Maslow identified are not universal, and our requirements are not pursued in an ascending, linear fashion. One doesn’t need to live in a safe environment to seek meaning and creativity. Hunger doesn’t render love and belonging unnecessary.last_img read more

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All of eight this Khan rocks

The capital was witness to the parampara tradition when sitar maestro Imrat Khan, introduced his youngest son, Azmat Ali Khan, as the next prodigy of the Khan brood at the ongoing five-day Delhi Classical Music Festival.Eight-year-old Azmat is the son of the Imrat Khan’s American wife Melinda and the youngest of his five sons – the others being Nishat, Irshad, Wajahat and Shafaatullah – all of whom are accomplished international musicians in the family Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’gharana.‘It is my duty to teach my sons the music we have played for generations and have given to the world. I devote all my time to teach them despite my failing health. Like all his brothers, Azmat shows promise. I cannot abandon my responsibility as a father,’ Imrat Khan said.Azmat played raga Jhinjhoti, a deviation of the Khamaja family of ragas, to a packed hall at the Kamani theatre in the capital. The playful child who drawls on his ‘r’ and ‘s’, tackled a sitar that towered way above his two-foot frame with ease, plucking the same melliflous notes as his father’s despite a few nervous misses. Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with NetflixAfter the recital, Azmat spoke to the media. He said he had been learning the sitar and surbahar – two instruments that his father commands at will – since the age of three.‘I practise for a couple of hours everyday under my father’s tutelage. I just love doing it. I don’t have fixed hours for taalim,’ the third-grader said.The little ‘ustaad, however, prefers the complicated surbahar and its basic sound to that of the sitar. He plays both the instruments. ‘But it is a hard choice to say which one I like better…Preferably the surbahar,’ he drawled.His fingers hurt after long hours of strumming the strings. ‘But I have to do it,’ Azmat said.‘Most of my friends in school are musicians. My best friend is a pianist,’ Azmat told. read more

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Striking the right chords

first_img‘Sa ma pa is a cultural movement rather than a festival,’ points out Abhay Rustum Sopori. The santoor player along with his grandfather — Pandit Bhajan Sopori — organises the SaMaPa Sangeet Sammelan.’The festival has stepped in its eighth year now. SaMaPa has made special efforts to preserve the rich cultural heritage of our country and has come up as a cultural movement with the motto ‘Music to the masses, Jan Jan Tak Sangeet,’ said Abhay.The musician says that the festival acts as a cultural bridge for Jammu and Kashmir with the rest of the country. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’This year the festival features more than 50 performers, including  both young and master musicians. Artistes like Ragini Rainu, Ustad Shahid Parvez Khan,  Pandit Manilal Nag, Pandit Brij Narayan, Geeta Chandran along with others will be participating in the festival.’Music today faces serious concerns. The foremost among them is rising groupism and lobbyism. I have known artistes who have more than three decades of experience and have still not been able to carve their niche. That’s the musician’s plight,’ said Abhay. Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with NetflixAbhay will be playing santoor at the festival. ‘I have not really made any prior preparation. Whatever I will perform will be impromptu and like always I will experiment with all the difficult ragas and talas,’ he says on his performance. How has the Delhi circuit taken to these music festivals? ‘Initially grabbing attention was difficult but eventually our initiative paid off. Sa Ma Pa as a festival has its niche segment for all music lovers,’ said Abhay.’The festival represents the ethos and diversity of our country. It’s a platform for all talented and veteran musicians who are still finding their place under the sun,’ Abhay concluded.DETAILAt: Kamani Auditorium  When: 24-25 November Timings: 6.30 pm onwardslast_img read more

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Oldest business management institute to take measures for 100 final placement

first_imgKolkata: Indian Institute of Social Welfare & Business Management (IISWBM) is taking a slew of measures to achieve 100 percent placement in the institution. Rajagopal Dhar Chakraborti has joined as the new director of the oldest B school in the country in the last week of March.”We want to achieve 100 percent placement. We will be in constant touch with our alumni and seeking their valuable advice for developing our relationship with the industry. We are planning to include the internship of our students as a part of our course,” Dhar Chakrabari said. Also Read – Heavy rain hits traffic, flightsIt may be mentioned that the institute has thousands of alumni based across the world including India. “There are around 2,500 alumni who are in contact with us. A separate cell will be set up to rope in more alumni with the activities of this institute,” a senior official said. He added that the institute will focus on skill development of students and will also recruit at least two more placement officers.According to the placement cell of the B school, there have been 95 percent placements in MBA, 85 percent in Master of Human Resource Management (MHRM ) and 75 percent in other subjects. “We have to achieve 100 percent placement and for this we are also restructuring our curriculum as per job demands in the market,” a senior official of IISWBM said. Also Read – Speeding Jaguar crashes into Merc, 2 B’deshi bystanders killedAs per statistics, in 2015-16 the placement rate was 96 percent, and 98 percent in 2016-17. The placement season starts from November and continues till May. “There have been 92 percent placements already,” an official with the B school’s placement cell said.IISWBM has set a precedence in its placement record this year with one of its students bagging a job with Amazon India with a hefty pay package of Rs 12 lakh.The B school was set up by the Calcutta University senate together with the then Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru and the then Bengal Chief Minister Bidhan Chandra Roy and Dijendra Kumar Sanyal in 1953.Companies that had participated in the campus recruitment process includes ICICI, Jio, ITC, Marico, Linde India, Khadims, SBI Cards and of course Amazon India to name a few.last_img read more

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Detailing the cuts and folds

first_imgAs the curtains on the 7th edition of India Art Fair (IAF), India’s premier modern and contemporary art fair, get set to roll up in the Capital, the art fraternity from across the world gets ready to descend upon the city with the finest in the field from January 29 to  February 1. Founded in 2008, IAF has made an indelible statement in the art scene in India, acting as a single platform for artists, collectors, gallerists, curators, museum directors and art enthusiasts to network, collaborate and create opportunities. Curated by Girish Shahane, IAF 2015 has a total of 85 exhibiting galleries in 90 booths, showcasing the length and breadth of Indian and international modern and contemporary practices. Gallery Art Positive is also ready with its two booths at the fair. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’It will present solo shows in booths S9 and S10 by two artists, Alex Davis and Dimpy Menon, respectively.“Dimpy introduces us to the potential in her figures that is at once tense and relaxed. It is the moment that is both the high point of motion and the beginning of stillness.  And as for Alex Davis, his works epitomise the concept of India Modern,” says Anu Bajaj, Director Gallery Art Positive.Born in Ahmedabad and a graduate in Fine Arts from College of Art Chennai, with sculpting lessons, Dimpy Menon’s creations have adorned a wide range of spaces, both public and indoors, across the country. Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with NetflixThe Bangalore-based artist’s finesse with the mediums of stone and metal molds them into lithe, organic forms that often assume larger-than-life proportions. The State Lalit kala awardee presents to the fair seven poetic creations in Solo for Two. As she juxtaposes the elementary concept of time with relationships, she brings to us dynamic sets of sculptures in bronze and granite. “The bronzes celebrate life, capturing the human form in an array of movements: complex, acrobatic and graceful. They are a tribute to the fleeting moments that resonate in our minds like a line of poetry or a bar of music,” says Anu Bajaj. Delhi-based Alex Davis, at the same time, is an artiste and a designer who is a graduate in mechanical engineering and brings to the fair his sea of architectural plants in highly polished stainless steel in the Champa Flowers, and clusters of Marigold. A perfect blend of handcraftsmanship and technology, these beautiful blossoms will magically transform any setting. While polished copper moulded in the form of an anarchic maze on the wall to depict frozen time in The Roots, his third piece, Hyper Blooms, is a sea of 9 poppies in pigmented and polished stainless steel, as a larger-than-life frieze on the wall.last_img read more

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Art defining womanhood

first_imgThis one’s for the art lovers! Impression, a group art show by Uchaan at Gold Souk Mall, Gurgaon is now open for the public. The show exclusively focuses upon the work of a heterogeneous group of artists with many prominent names in the art world. The exhibition will form a bricolage of traditional, abstracts and contemporary art and through its variegated portrayals, initiate the celebration of ornamentation of women through its various forms. Their objective is to provide a suitable aesthetic platform and promote new talent. Jyoti Kalra, one of the key artists behind this Art show says, “While the focus of the initial exhibition was uninhibited expression of womanhood, the present exhibition focuses on presentation of variegated facets of nature, human life and their reciprocity which is a fitting tribute to women and embellishment of her beauty through the latest exhibition.” Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’Art connoisseurs will have the opportunity to witness and critique the works of notable names in the art field including Annu Kalra, Anil Kumar Kohli, Ambbali Dutta, Anirudh Khanna, Aruna Gupta, B.Raghavan, Deepu David, Durga Charan Das, Ekta Sharma, Neelesh Ganesh, Megha Arora,  Naveen Verma, Pankaj Agarwal, Poonam Saini, G.Raman,Sankar Mandal, Shalini Goyal, Sneha Bhardwaj, Sheetal Gulhati,Sheha, Shilpa Rander, Sonam Jaiswal, Punam Walia and Pradeep Kumar during the exhibition. Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with NetflixUchaan is a team of young and contemporary visionaries, in search of youthful upcoming talent and  hitherto undiscovered maestros.The thought behind the Uchaan can be summarised in the words of Jyoti Kalra, the founder of Uchaan- “The main spirit working behind Uchaan is to bring visibility and credibility to the works of deserving talented artists who have the potential to make it big in the mainstream discourse”. Its effort is to provide adequate platform and promote new talent and also offer art consulting and professional advice that includes creation and building of personal, corporate and institutional collection.When: On till April 15 Where: Gold Souk Mall, GurgaonTiming: 11:00 am –  7:00 pmlast_img read more

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